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Full text of "Nicotine insecticides. Part VI, Search for synergists (continued)"

STATE F BOARD 

December 1951 E-833 

United States Department of Agriculture 

Agricultural Research Administration 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine 



NICOTINE INSECTICIDES 
Part VI- -SEARCH FOR SYNERGISTS (Continued) 

By E. L. Mayer, R. H. Nelson, and Carl E. Robertson, Division of 
Stored Product Insect Investigations }J Bureau of Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, and J.J. Willaman, Eastern Regional Research 
Laboratory, Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry 



The search for compounds to replace some of the nicotine in insecti- 
cides and thereby make its use more economical has been continued. 
This paper presents the results of developmental laboratory work on 
adjuncts that appeared promising in preliminary screening tests, reported 
in Part V of this series (E-768). The compounds were furnished by the 
Eastern Regional Research Laboratory of the Bureau of Agricultural and 
Industrial Chemistry, and were tested against plant-feeding insects at the 
Anaheim, Calif., laboratory of the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. 

Materials and Methods 

In most of the tests the nicotine was in the form of nicotine sulfate or 
nicotine bentonite dust. The nicotine sulfate was diluted with attapulgite. 
For the tests against the pomace fly the free alkaloid was dissolved in 
ethyl alcohol. 

The dosages of nicotine alone ranged from 0.9 to 29.2 micrograms 
and of the adjunct alone from 1 to 29.6 micrograms per square centimeter. 
In the mixtures the dosages of nicotine ranged from 0.45 to 7.24 micro- 
grams and of the adjunct from 1 to 18.1 micrograms per square centi- 
meter. 



1/ Formerly the Division of Control Investigations, 



'10 



2 - 



The insects and the foliage on which they were fed are as follows: 
Insect Stage Foliage 



Alder flea beetle (Altica ambiens 

(Lee.)) Fourth instar Alder 

Armyworm (Cirphis unipuncta (Haw.)) Third instar Corn and barley 



Bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.) 



California oakworm ( Phryganidia 
californica (Pack.)) 



All stages Nasturtium or 

rhubarb 



Fourth instar Live oak 



Celery leaf tier ( Phlyctaenia rubigalis 

(Guen.)) Third instar 

Diamond back moth ( Plutella maculipennis do. 

(Curt.)) 

Dock beetle ( Gastrophysa cyanea (Melsh.)) do. 



English grain aphid ( Macrosiphum 
granarium (Kby.)) 

Greenhouse thrips ( Heliothrips 
haemorrhoidalis (Bouche)) 

Pea aphid (Macrosiphum pisi (Kltb.)) 



Pomace fly ( Drosophila melanogaster 
(Mei 6 en)) 



All stages 



Adults 



Swiss chard 
Collard 

Dock 

Barley 

Citrus 



First nyvnphal 
instar Windsor bean 



Adults 



(Fed on sugar) 



Variegated cutworm (Peridroma 
margaritosa (Haw. )) 



First instar Broccoli 



The materials were tested by infesting dusted foliage with first- 
instar larvae in cloth-covered vials and third- and fourth-instar larvae 
in 9-cm. petri dishes. The pea aphids were dusted directly on the plants 
on which they were feeding and were then confined in 16.5-cm. battery 
jars with cloth caps. The English grain aphids on barley were dusted 
and placed in petri dishes. The pomace flies were confined in shell 
vials lined with filter paper that had been dipped in ethyl alcohol containing 
the toxicants. The alcohol was allowed to evaporate completely before 
the flies were introduced. A few grains of granulated sugar were placed 
in the bottom of the vials as food for the flies. The greenhouse thrips 



-3- 

were also confined in shell vials, the open ends of which were held 
securely to a dusted citrus leaf until mortality counts were made. 
Approximately 50 aphids and 30 of all other insects were used per test. 
Mortality counts were taken on the aphids after 2 days and on the other 
insects after 3 days. 

Wadley's short-cut procedure (2) was used as the statistical approach 
in determining the presence of synergism, as was done in similar tests 
with phthalonitrile and pentachloroanisole (Mayer et al. 1). By this 
method the results are given in terms of the log ratio, which in this paper 
is the quotient of the difference between the log of the dosage at probit 5 
(giving 50 percent mortality) for nicotine and the log of the same dosage 
for the nicotine equivalent, divided by the standard error. A log ratio 
of 2 is probably significant at the 5-percent level and 2.6 at the 1 -percent 
level. 

In Part V it was stated that where any mixture containing 5 percent 
of adjunct plus 2 percent of nicotine gave higher mortality than that given 
by the 5 -percent nicotine standard alone against two or more insect 
species (from three to nine species were used), the adjunct was considered 
to be a possible synergist for nicotine. By this criterion the compounds 
given in table 1 of that paper were selected as having some promise, and 
developmental work was done on them. The results are presented in 
table 1 of this paper. 

Only bis(p-chlorophenyl) sulfide and pentaerythritol diisobutyral 
showed definite synergism with most of the insects used; the other 
compounds showed not only no synergism but even antagonism. It is 
obvious that, if a more stringent criterion had been applied to the screen- 
ing data, considerable developmental work could have been avoided. 

In order to establish a basis for closer screening, two sets of data 
were compiled. One set, taken from tables 1 and 2 of Part V, included 
averages for the difference between the mortality caused by the mixture 
of nicotine and the adjunct (A) and that caused by the 5-percent nicotine 
alone (B), or for the difference between A and the sum of the mortalities 
caused by the 2-percent nicotine and the adjunct (C+D). The second set of 
data consisted of the average log ratios from table 1 of the present p-per. 
Both sets of data, arranged in decreasing order of log ratios, are shown in 
table 2 of the present paper, together with the coefficients of correlation 
between the log ratios and the data from Part V. Since, to be significpnt, 
this coefficient should be three times the probable error, the coefficients 
from table 1 are significant but not those from table 2 (Pnrt V). Therefore, 
the data in the latter table cannot be used in the selection of promising adjuncts. 
It should be pointed out that in obtaining these data the materials were tested 
against the pea aphid only, whereas in obtaining the developmental data cs 
many as nine other species were used, and only three adjuncts were tested 
against the pea aphid; also that in Part V a 3.5-percent nicotine dust was 
used in table 2 and a 5-percent in table 1. So it is not strange that no 
significant correlation exists between the screening data on pea aphids and 
the developmental data on other species. 



- 4- 

On the other hand, the data in table 1 of Part V are directly related 
to what may be expected when the Wadley technique is applied. The values 
for the screening data were plotted against those for the developmental work on 
square paper for the four comparisons above. Bis(p-chlorophenyl) sulfide 
and pentaerythritol diisobutyral consistently appeared in that quadrant 
having positive values for both abscissas and ordinates, an indication that 
these are the two best materials. If the average mortality against all 
insects for each material had been determined for table 1 of Part V and 
those compounds chosen for developmental work that averaged plus 10 or 
better for both A-B and A-(C + D), they would have shown but one good 
adjunct- -bis(p-chlorophenyl) sulfide. 

The question is: Why did so many of the compounds give antagonistic 
results (minus signs) in the developmental tests? A possible explanation 
is insect specificity. By the criterion previously explained, sesamin was 
chosen as a promising adjunct. In screening work this m.aterial was 
effective against the melonworm and the pea aphid, two species that were 
not used in developmental work. The armyworm and the diamondback 
moth were the only insects used in developmental work with sesamin. 
Antagonism was shown here as in the screening work. The use of different 
insects was unavoidable, since most of the screening tests were run on 
insects found in central Florida when the laboratory was located there, 
and all developmental work was done on California insects. The diamond- 
back moth and the pea aphid were the only species tested in both places. 
In table 1 of Part V nearly all the plus signs (an indication of synergistic 
action) in column A-B are opposite Florida insects. Almost without 
exception, where the armyworm showed promise in the preliminary work 
it was also effective in the developmental study. In other words, if the 
same species of insects had been used in both the screening and develop- 
mental work, there would probably not have been so many materials 
showing antagonism. The insect used in the developmental work were 
susceptible only to pentaerythritol diisobutyral and bis(p-chlorophenyl) 
sulfide. There is therefore less specificity with these two materials, so 
that they are far superior to the others. 

Even at the heaviest deposit of dust all allowed a moderate amount of 
feeding. Those containing the following adjuncts, however, allowed only 
a trace: Bis(p-chlorophenyl) sulfide, 2,4-dinitromesitylene, p-bromo- 
benzenesulfonamide, 1,4-ciiphenylsemicarbazide, pentaerythritol 
diisobutyral, and phenyl sulfide. 

Here again bis(p-chlorophenyl) sulfide and pentaerythritol diisobutyral 
were among the best materials. 

In table 3 the adjuncts are placed into groups that show synergism, 
antagonism, or nonsignificance with nicotine when tested by the Wadley 
procedure. Neither the sulfate nor the bentonite of nicotine showed 
antagonism for bis(p-chlorophenyl) sulfide and pentaerythritol biisobutyral. 



Literature Cited 

(1) Mayer, E. L., McGovran, E. R., Tal ley, F. B., and Willaman, J.J. 

1950. Tests for synergism between nicotine and phthalonitrile 

and between nicotine and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-pentachloroanisole. 
Jour. Econ. Ent. 43: 533-537. 

(2) Wadley, F. M. 

1949. Short-cut procedure for error estimate in laboratory studies 
of synergism in insecticides. U.S. Bur. Ent. and Plant 
Quar. ET-275, 5 pp. 



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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



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